The Paris Agreement calls on countries to provide regular information on their adaptation plans, priorities and assistance needs. The regulatory framework provides detailed guidance on the types of specific information that countries should provide, such as their specific risks and vulnerability to the effects of climate change and the implementation of their adaptation plans. The Paris Agreement has increased the need to deal with losses and damage that go beyond what adaptation efforts can prevent – such as the impact on countries` economies, cultural heritage and public health. For the first time, the regulatory framework allows countries to report on their efforts to address this loss and damage. Countries meet from 2 to 14 December in Katowice, Poland, to agree on the “work programme of the Paris Agreement”, also known as the rules of the Paris Agreement. In this presentation, SEI researcher Cleo Verkuijl deciphers the rules, explains why the issue of the meeting is important and outlines the most important expectations for regulatory negotiations. No – although we can expect stricter verification procedures for all, developed countries will continue to assume more important reporting obligations than development under the so-called principle of common but differentiated or cbdr responsibilities. The issue of “differentiation” between developed and developing countries is a very clear example. Although the Paris Agreement – unlike the 1997 Kyoto Protocol – is turning away from a two-way approach between these two groups of countries, the different circumstances of countries must nevertheless be taken into account. The question remains how to recognize the realities of different countries while ensuring that all countries take their fair share. This question arises particularly in countries that have been discussed on transparency: what flexibility should be given to countries with limited capacity to monitor and report on their progress in implementing their commitments? And how will governments ensure that the rules are dynamic enough to take into account the changing situations of countries over time? The new regulations confirm that this process will take into account “justice and the best science available.” But it does not address concretely how these inputs will be used and how the results of the inventory will increase ambition.
It would be difficult, if not impossible, to quantify the carbon impact of regulation. What we can say is that stricter rules involve greater responsibility, which in turn creates the right conditions for countries to trust each other and raise ambitions. This issue has become a major stumbling block in the negotiations, with Brazil and others refusing to approve rules that would fill this gap, and discussions will therefore continue next year. Meanwhile, the United Nations does not have a formal agreement on the implementation of the international emissions trading system. After three years of talks, delegates arrived in Katowice, Poland, to reach an agreement on the rules of the Paris agreement. An effective set of rules will ensure that the implementation of the Paris Agreement is a space for all and leaves no room for fraudsters. Plan: The regulation addresses many questions about how countries should prepare their NPNEs, for example. B information that should be integrated in a clear and transparent way, so that other countries and stakeholders can understand how each country intends to take its greenhouse gas emissions into account.